Largest assembly of an internal combustion engine. Consists of the lower part of the engine which contains the crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons in an oil-tight housing.
This is the main part of the engine that everything else bolts to. The inside the engine block has passages for coolant flow and engine oil flow.
Crankshaft, camshaft, lifters, rocker arms, pushrods, pistons, oil pump, bearings are all components internal to the engine block.
Cylinder head, oil pan, and intake manifold bolt to the outside of the block and other components attach to them. When an engine needs an overhaul, the complete engine is removed from the vehicle, all the internal and external components are removed, bearings are removed and all wear items are replaced. The engine block has been made from cast iron for the last 100 years, but nowadays it is made from aluminum to save weight- thus better fuel economy.
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